CSC Kitchen Theater Recipes

Jurassic Pie

Ingredients:
Layers of “Earth”

Pennsylvania Period- peat and coal 4 cups prepared chocolate pudding
10 Oreo cookies coarsely crushed

Triassic Period- shale, limestone, and sandstone Neapolitan ice cream
(1 scoop each flavor)

Jurassic Period- Jura Mountains 1 cup Nilla® Wafers coarsely crushed

Cretaceous Period- Inland Seas 2 cups blue colored whipped topping
(optional Swedish fish)

Ice Age Glaciers- 1 cup mini-marshmallows

Today Top Soi-l 1 cup finely crushed Oreos®
Grass (optional green sprinkles or jimmy jams)


Instructions:
• Place each layer in a clear glass bowl. Because the Earth is constantly changing
and moving, the layers become mixed.
• Use a large spoon or potato masher to swirl layers together!
• Eat, enjoy, and talk with a friend or sibling about the different periods in history!

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Snowflake Sugar Cookies with Royal Icing

1 cup (2 sticks) unsalted butter
1 cup sugar*
1 egg
1 tsp vanilla extract
½ tsp salt
3 cups flour
1½ tspns. baking soda

*See the sugar-free recipe below!

Cream butter and sugar, then add egg and vanilla. Mix dry ingredients in a separate bowl, then add to butter mixture. Mix well.

Divide dough into smaller sections. Take a section at a time, place between tow pieces of parchment paper and roll out to desired thickness. For best results, chill dough 1-2 hours.

After dough has chilled, take one dough section and remove top layer of parchment paper. Cut into snowflake shapes with cookie cutters (or other shapes as desired!). See the snowflake facts below for advice on choosing the most realistic snowflake cookie cutter.

Bake in a 350 degree oven on an ungreased cookie sheet for 10-12 minutes or until edges become golden brown. Cool slightly on cookie sheet, then remove to wire racks.

Yield: 4 dozen 3-inch snowflake cookies. Cookies and dough can be frozen.

Snowflake Science

  • Snowflakes are growing ice crystals, and they form inside a cloud. 
  • Snowflakes are formed when water vapor in the air condenses into solid ice crystals.  As more water vapor condenses, tiny ice crystals grow into snowflakes.
  • You will never find a 4, 5, 7, or 8 sided snowflake.  The ice crystals cannot grow into those forms.
  • Snowflakes are not frozen raindrops: Frozen raindrops are called sleet.
  • Snowflakes are clear.  Snow looks white to us because snowflakes reflect white light.

Try this:
When it gets cold outside, make your own cloud by breathing. When it snows, examine snowflakes that fall on your mittens.  Can you see different shapes?

 

Sugar Free Snowflake Cookies
½ cup (1 stick) unsalted butter
1 cup Splenda Sugar Blend
2 large eggs
2 TBS vanilla extract
1 TBS cinnamon
3 ½ cups all-purpose flour
3 ½ cups all-purpose flour
1 1/2 tsp baking powder
½ teaspoon salt
1/3 cup water

Directions
Using a hand mixer, cream butter at medium speed. Add the Splenda and beat well. Add eggs one at a time, mixing well between each egg. Add in vanilla.

Combine flour, baking powder, salt and cinnamon in a separate bowl.  Gradually add flour mixture to Splenda mixture, adding water as needed to combine completely.

Place dough on a lightly floured work surface. Divide dough in half, pat each half into a circle and lay between two sheets of parchment paper. For best results, chill 1-2 hours.

Roll each portion to 1/8 inch thickness on a lightly floured surface. Cut with a cookie cutter and place on a lightly greased (non-stick spray) cookie sheet.

Bake at 350 degrees for 10 minutes, or until edges of cookies are lightly browned.  Cool slightly on cookie sheet, then remove to wire cooling racks.

Makes approximately 3 dozen cookies.

Royal Icing
1 ½ cups powdered sugar
Whole milk or cream
Food coloring

Add milk or cream to the powdered sugar one tablespoon at a time until you achieve the desired consistency for your icing. If you add too much liquid, add a little more sugar. To make different colors, divide the icing into separate bowls and add 2-3 drops of food coloring to each bowl. Frost cookies when they are completely cool.

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TOUR de FRUIT Peachberrydew Smoothies

Ingredients
2 cups Honeydew melon
2 cups strawberries
2 cups blueberries
2 cups peaches
1 6oz container of yogurt (vanilla or plain)
1 cup orange juice
1 cup vanilla soy milk OR 1 cup lowfat milk and 2 tspns vanilla extract
 
Directions
-Pour all of the orange juice into a food processor or large blender.
-Add in melon and peaches and blend.
-Add in berries and blend.
-Finally add yogurt and milk, then blend until smooth.
 
Serving Options:
-Over ice cubes
-With crushed ice (add ice cubes to blender or food processor at the same time orange juice is added)
-Put in plastic container and freeze.
 
 
Healthy Eating Info.
  Everyone over the age of 6 should get 5-9 servings of fruits and vegetables every day.   A broad variety of different fruits and veggies is important too!   To make sure you are getting all the nutrients you need you should eat a lot of different colors of produce.   
  Nutritionists break down fruits and vegetables into 5 color categories:
 
            Colors:                        Examples:
           Red                             (cherries, red apples, radishes, tomatoes, beets)
            Orange/Yellow            (nectarines, mangos, oranges, carrots, sweet potatoes, butternut squash)
            Green                          (green apples, limes, kiwi, cucumbers, peas )
            Blue/Purple                  (blueberries, figs, plums, eggplant, purple cabbage)
            White                           (bananas, brown pears, white flesh peaches, cauliflower, white corn)
 
Our smoothie recipe has fruits representing 4 of the 5 different color categories, making it a delicious and nutritious treat!

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Food Factor
Yogurt

Supplies
Large saucepan
Candy thermometer
Electric yogurt maker 

Ingredients
Nonstick spray
42 oz whole milk
½ cup honey
1 TBS vanilla
6 ounces yogurt starter (plain yogurt with live active cultures)
½ cup dry instant milk
       
Directions
Spray a large saucepan with nonstick spray. Add milk, honey and vanilla.

Gently heat the milk mixture until it barely begins to boil, about 205 degrees F.
        
Remove mixture from heat and let cool gradually to between 95 and 105 degrees. This will take at least 30 minutes. Periodically check with candy thermometer. Important: Do not let the milk to drop below 90 degrees.

After the milk mixture is cooled, pour into large liquid measuring cup using the strainer to remove “skin” off the top. You can also carefully remove the “skin” with a spoon.

Place the yogurt starter in a small bowl. Add a small amount of the milk mixture and the dry milk. Stir until completely blended.

Add the blended starter into the remaining milk/honey mixture and stir until completely blended.
       
Pour this mixture into the jars belonging to the yogurt maker. Important: Do not put lids on the jars.

Place jars in yogurt maker, put clear top on maker, and switch on. The process takes about 6 hours. Be sure to reserve a jar of completed yogurt to be the starter for your next batch.       
  
Enjoy your homemade yogurt by folding in fruit, granola or nuts before eating.

 

Yogurt Science from Food Factor
A yogurt “starter” is actually live bacteria. Once added to the scalded and sweetened milk, the bacteria in the starter begin to multiplying, producing more and more bacteria. The bacteria ingest natural milk sugars and release lactic acid as a waste product. The increased acidity causes milk proteins to tangle into a solid mass, creating the yogurt we enjoy.

The strains of bacteria used in yogurt production are Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Sometimes a third strain called Lactobacillus acidophilus is also added.

Bacteria often gets a bad rap because some strains can cause illnesses and infections. But don’t worry: the kinds of bacteria in yogurt—and many others—are actually good for people!

 

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What Animals Eat
Smilin’ Mini Pizzas

Ingredients
1 whole wheat or multigrain English muffins
1 TBS pizza sauce
¼ c Mozzarella Cheese
2 black olives slices (for eyes) 
1 onion sliver (for nose)
1 slice of red pepper (for mouth)

Cut English muffins in half and lay on cookie sheet with edges almost touching. Place in 400 degree oven for 5 – 10 minutes to toast. 

Spread sauce on toasted muffins, then sprinkle on the cheese. Finally, make a face with olives, onion and red pepper. Place under the broiler for 2 minutes, or until cheese is melted. Let cool a little and enjoy!

Science from What Animals Eat
What Animals Eat familiarizes preschool – first grade children with the eating habits of animals they can encounter at Carnegie Science Center.

Did you know there are three different kinds of “eaters” in the world?
            1.  Carnivores are animals that eat meat
            2.  Herbivores are animals that eat plants and fruits and vegetables
            3.  Omnivores are animals that can eat both meat and plants.

We have lots of eaters (besides people!) at Carnegie Science Center. You can visit the SeaScape aquarium and the animals in Exploration Station to learn more about where different animals live and what kind of eaters they are.

Questions to Ask Kids
What kind of eater are you?

Do you have a pet at home?  If so, what kind of eater is your pet?

What animals do you observe in your neighborhood?  Squirrels?  Birds? Bugs?  What do you think the animals you see in your neighborhood like to eat?

 

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Fruit Flambé

Ingredients:

* 1 Stick of unsalted butter
* 1/8 cup of banana liquor
* 1/8 cup of Meyer's rum
* 2 bananas, chopped
* 3 TBS citrus juice, either orange or lemon
* Dash of cinnamon
* 1 1/2 cups brown sugar, loose

Safe at home Instructions:For maximum home safety please do the following

In a shallow pan (do not use non-stick) melt butter over low heat. To the melted butter gradually stir in brown sugar until a thick caramel sauce, is formed and turn up to low/medium heat. Add citrus juice and keep stirring. To the caramel sauce add fruit and cinnamon. Let cook for about 2 minutes, then pour in banana liquor and Meyer's rum. Let simmer over medium heat for about ten to 15 minutes, until alcohol has been cooked away. Serve over vanilla ice cream.

Other fruits and their alcoholic complements:

* Apples with Meyer's rum and brandy
* Pears with Meyer's rum and bourbon
* Peaches with Peach schnapps and bourbon
* Nectarines with Meyer's rum and bourbon

**Liquor with an alcohol content of 25% or less can be added at an increment of 1/4 cup.


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Chocolate Decadence Cake

12 oz. semisweet chocolate
8 eggs, separated
1/4 teaspoon cream of tartar
1/2 cup of butter, melted
pinch of salt
1 teaspoon vanilla
1/2 cup of sugar
(no flour or leavening in the batter!)

Grease and flour a 9" round pan. Melt the chocolate and butter together in double boiler. Whip egg whites until soft peaks form. Add sugar to the egg whites 2 tablespoons at a time. Set aside.

Whip egg yolks until they appear thick and lemony; add vanilla. At low speed, add the melted chocolate, butter and salt. By hand, fold 1/4 of the meringue into the chocolate mixture, then fold all the chocolate into the rest of meringue, gently but briskly.

Pour batter into the 9" round pan. Bake at 350°F for 35-45 minutes in water bath. This may take a little longer depending on oven. After minimum baking time, check center with toothpick to make sure cake is cooked thoroughly. Turn onto cooling rack and chill.

Icing:
8 oz. heavy whipping cream
8 oz. semisweet or sweet dark chocolate

Bring cream to a boil, stirring often. As soon as it boils, remove from heat. Add chocolate and stir until it melts; cool to room temperature.

Place cooling rack with cake onto baking sheet. Pour slightly cooled icing onto cooled cake and spread; chill. Chill until icing has hardened. Serve and enjoy!

Meringue Science: What’s Going On?

Egg whites are about 90% water and 10% protein. Egg-white proteins, called “globular proteins,” are long chains of amino acid molecules that look like tangles under a microscope. Some of the amino acids are hydrophilic, meaning they are attracted to water; others are hydrophobic, meaning they are repelled by water. When you crack open an egg, the hydrophobic parts of the proteins are clustered in the center of the protein tangles where they don’t touch water. When you beat bubbles of air into egg whites with a mixer, it makes the tangles of protein uncurl. When uncurled, the hydrophobic amino acids are no longer protected from the water, so they twist around to touch air. When they touch another strand of protein from the egg white, the two strings bond and create a web-like network of strands that hold the air bubbles in place, giving you light, airy meringue.

 

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Meringue Madness

Make these Holiday Spice Meringue Cookies to start a new smell memory for your family.

Ingredients:
4 room-temperature egg whites
1 tsp vanilla
1/8 tsp cream of tartar
1 cup granulated sugar
1 tsp cinnamon
1 TBS cocoa

What to do:

  1. Preheat oven to 225 degrees. Line a cookie sheet with parchment paper.
  2. Whip the egg whites in a large glass or metal bowl using a mixer until foamy. DO NOT use a plastic bowl.
  3. Add the vanilla and cream of tartar.
  4. Continue to beat the egg whites and add the sugar one tablespoon at a time until it is all incorporated. Add the cinnamon and cocoa. Beat until the meringue holds very firm peaks on the beater, but don’t overdo it!
  5. Fill a pastry bag with the egg white mixture using a spatula. Squeeze out 1 – 2 inch blobs of meringue onto the cookie sheet.
  6. Bake for about 90 minutes. When cookies are dry and the outsides are hard, turn off the oven, open the oven door and let the cookies sit for 5 minutes.
  7. Remove the cookies and cool them gradually away from any drafts. Store in an airtight container. Any moisture will make your cookies mushy.

Variations:
Try substituting the following for the cocoa:
1 tsp pumpkin pie spice
1 tsp apple pie spice
2 TBS citrus juice

 

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Plant Pop - Root Beer or Ginger Ale

64 oz. Water
1 TBS Root Beer Extract OR 1/2 TBS Ginger Ale Extract
1 Cup Sugar
1 9-pound slab dry ice
canister with snap-on vented lid
NOTE: IT IS IMPERATIVE THAT VERY THICK GLOVES OR MITTENS ARE USED WHEN HANDLING DRY ICE TO PREVENT FROST BITE. DRY ICE IS 109.3 DEGREES BELOW ZERO.

Combine water, sugar, and extract in a plastic canister. Use a meat mallet to break slab of dry ice into several pieces. Put dry ice in the canister of liquid. It will begin to bubble, carbonating the liquid. Snap a vented lid onto top of canister (a lid with holes cut or poked in it). Let the soda pop carbonate for several minutes. Strain dry ice out and serve immediately.

Did you know... Plant Pop

* Did you know that ginger root is not really a "root?" Ginger root is actually a rhizome! A rhizome is an underground stem.
* Did you know that dry ice doesn't melt? It sublimates, meaning it changes from a solid directly to a gas. Now that's cool!

 

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Saucy Science - Ancho Chili Mayonnaise

2TBS White Wine Vinegar
1TBS Water
3 Egg Yolks
1 tsp. Dry Mustard
1 tsp. Sugar
1 tsp. Salt (or more to taste)
1 TBS Ancho Chili Powder (or more to taste)
1/4 tsp. White or Black Pepper
1 Cup Safflower Oil (or other low flavor oil)

In mixing bowl combine vinegar, egg yolks and dry mustard. Hand whisk until combined. Add ancho chili powder, sugar, salt and pepper and blend at medium to high speed using blender or food processor. While continuing to blend, add oil slowly, pouring in a thin stream. This should take at least three minutes. When all oil has been added, blend the mixture to desired consistency. Excellent over chicken salad. Can be stored in refrigerator for up to one week.

 

 

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Saucy Science - Aioli (Roasted Garlic Mayonnaise)

2TBS Red Wine Vinegar
1TBS Water
3 Egg Yolks
1 tsp. Dry Mustard
1 tsp. Sugar
1 tsp. Salt
1/4 tsp. White Pepper
6 Cloves Roasted Garlic (or more to taste)
1 Cup Olive Oil

Wrap unpeeled garlic cloves tightly in aluminum foil (or place in ceramic garlic roaster) and bake at 450°F for 10-12 minutes. Let garlic cool then peel, crush and mince.

In a mixing bowl, combine vinegar, egg yolks and dry mustard. Hand whisk until combined. Add roasted garlic, sugar, salt and pepper and blend on medium to high speed using blender or food processor. While continuing to blend, add oil slowly, pouring in a thin stream. This should take at least three minutes. When all oil has been added, blend the mixture to desired consistency. Excellent for potato or macaroni salad. Can be stored in refrigerator for up to one week.

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Saucy Science - Aioli (Roasted Garlic Mayonnaise)

2TBS Red Wine Vinegar
1TBS Water
3 Egg Yolks
1 tsp. Dry Mustard
1 tsp. Sugar
1 tsp. Salt
1/4 tsp. White Pepper
6 Cloves Roasted Garlic (or more to taste)
1 Cup Olive Oil

Wrap unpeeled garlic cloves tightly in aluminum foil (or place in ceramic garlic roaster) and bake at 450°F for 10-12 minutes. Let garlic cool then peel, crush and mince.

In a mixing bowl, combine vinegar, egg yolks and dry mustard. Hand whisk until combined. Add roasted garlic, sugar, salt and pepper and blend on medium to high speed using blender or food processor. While continuing to blend, add oil slowly, pouring in a thin stream. This should take at least three minutes. When all oil has been added, blend the mixture to desired consistency. Excellent for potato or macaroni salad. Can be stored in refrigerator for up to one week.

Egg Safety

Scientists estimate on the average that across the U.S., only 1 in 20,000 eggs might contain the bacteria Salmonella enteritidis. That makes the likelihood that an egg might contain the bacteria extremely small: only 0.005%. An average consumer may encounter a contaminated egg once every 84 years at this rate!

Only use eggs that have clean, uncracked, fresh shells. A weak or cracked shell increases the possibility of internal contamination.

Use pasteurized eggs, which have become available in most supermarkets. Pasteurized shell eggs are heat-treated to destroy any bacteria, and are especially suitable for preparing egg recipes that are not fully cooked.

Additionally, the acetic acid in the vinegar in mayonnaise kills bacteria too.

And, of course, always wash your hands thoroughly!

Sources: American Egg Board "On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen" by Harold McGee

The Science Behind: Saucy Science!

Our mayonnaise recipes are emulsified sauces. Emulsified sauces are made of something oil based and something water based. By themselves, oil molecules and water molecules do not mix. In order to make them stick together we need to add an emulsifier. In these recipes there are two: 1. The lecithin in the dry mustard. 2. The lecithin in the eggs. By mixing the ingredients together, we allow the lecithin to grab onto both the oil and water molecules, pulling them together in order to create a nice smooth sauce. Who knew mayo could be so scientific?

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Sugar Shock - Broken Glass Candy

3 3/4 cup table sugar
1 1/4 cup corn syrup
1 cup water
1 tsp. Lorann flavor oil*
Food color
Powdered Sugar
Candy thermometer

In a medium sauce pan, combine the table sugar, corn syrup and water. Heat and stir mixture over medium/high heat until dissolved. Once dissolved, do not stir, but heat the candy mixture to 290 degrees. When mixture is 290 degrees, remove from burner add desired flavor and color. Pour onto powdered sugar coated cookie sheet and cool for 3 hours. Served in smashed pieces.

*We recommend Make a Cake Company or JOANN for your Lorann flavor oils, and candy making supplies.
** Not a chewy candy. People with dental work should consume with caution.

Sweet Science: Sugar Shock!

Sugar that has been melted into syrup has different physical properties at different temperatures. If you don't have a candy thermometer, you can find the temperature of your sugar syrup by using the cold water test**. What you will need:
1 clean wooden or metal spoon.
1 container of very cold water (not iced)

Drop a small quantity of sugar syrup into the container of water
Pick up sugar between your fingers and feel the texture. Use the following textures to define the temperature of your sugar.

* Soft ball: this ball will be sticky and malleable to the touch when removed from the water; It means your sugar is 234°to242° F
* Firm ball: this ball will hold its shape when removed from the water; it means that your sugar is 244°to248°F
* Hard ball: this ball holds its shape when removed from the water but is still pliable; this means that your sugar is 250°to 266° F
* Soft crack: firm strands that can be stretched or bent when removed from the water; this means that your sugar is 270° to 290° F
* Hard crack: this sugar has stiff, firm threads that break easily when removed from the water; this means that your sugar is 300°-310° F

Reference:

The All New All Purpose Joy of Cooking by Irma S. Rombauer, Marion Rombauer Becker and Ethan Becker

 

 

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Science in a Scoop - Vanilla Ice Cream

1 cup milk
3/4 cup sugar
1 cup cream
4 egg yolks
1 Tablespoon vanilla extract

In a stainless steel bowl on top of a double boiler, beat egg yolks and sugar until light and creamy. In a small saucepan, scald milk (do not heat to a boil). Pour hot milk over egg mixture and stir.

Place bowl or double boiler over a pan of simmering water. Stir slowly and continuously for 10 minutes, or until custard is slightly thickened. You should be able to leave a track in the custard on the back of the spoon. Remove from heat.

Stir in cream and vanilla; cool. Pour into ice cream canister and freeze according to manufacturer's directions, or freeze using the "Kick the Can" method. Alternately, ice cream may be frozen for several hours in a shallow pan, scraping it out of the pan and whipping the ice cream every hour or so to prevent formation of large ice crystals.

Makes 1 1/4 quarts of ice cream.

Variations: For French Vanilla, use 8 egg yolks. For Strawberry, add 1/2 c sugar and 2 pints of ripe strawberries; for Apple Pie flavor, add 2c apple pie filling, 1 tsp lemon juice, 1 tsp cinnamon, and 1c crushed graham crackers; for Chocolate, add 1/2 cup additional sugar and 1/2 c unsweetened cocoa mixed with 4 Tablespoons of milk.
The scoop behind Science in a Scoop

Kick the can! How can kicking a can make ice cream? Here's how...
First you will need:
1. One coffee can filled half full with ice.
2. One half cup of kosher salt
3. One quart sized zipper lock plastic bag filled with 1 cup of custard mixture
Place salt and sealed baggie into the coffee can already containing the ice, put the lid on tightly and seal the lid with duct tape. Kick the can---or rather roll it around and shake the can for about 20 minutes. Then unseal the can and you will have fresh ice cream.
WHY: The cream mixture freezes because the ice absorbs the heat from the cream. That is what makes the ice melt. We add salt to the water because salt water freezes at a lower temperature than tap water. The ice and the salt will make it cold enough in the bag to freeze the cream.

 

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Edible Dirt - A kid-friendly recipe!

9" unfrosted layer cake
1 package Oreos, divided
8 ounces cream cheese, softened
8 ounces Cool Whip, thawed
1/3 cup sugar
gummy worms
4 cups chocolate pudding
Optional garnishes: fresh mint, toasted coconut

Crumble cake into 1 inch bits. Set aside. Coarsely crush 1/3 of Oreos; finely crush another 1/3. Set aside. Combine cream cheese, Cool Whip, and sugar. Beat until smooth.

In a clear bowl or trifle bowl, assemble the following layers:

BEDROCK: Spread whole and large pieces of crushed Oreo cookies into the bottom of the bowl. Make the layer as thick as two cookies.

PARENT MATERIAL: Spread the prepared pudding evenly over the Oreo layer. Spread the crumbled cake over the pudding layer and press into pudding.

SUBSOIL: Spread the cream cheese mixture evenly over the pudding and cake layer. Place gummy worms here and there.

TOPSOIL: Cover the cream cheese layer with finely crushed Oreos until covered. Optional: Top with green-tinted toasted coconut, or garnish with fresh mint sprig and another gummy worm.

Serve immediately or chill until served. When serving scoop into all layers.
Can you dig a hole all the way to China? Edible Dirt

Earth is made up of four layers. Most layers cannot be seen.

Bedrock is the deepest layer. It contains rocks, pebbles and stones packed tightly together. It contains no organic material.

Parent material is on top of the bedrock layer. It is the material from which the soil forms.

Subsoil is on top of the Parent Material. It is lighter in color and contains mostly sand and rocks.

Top soil is the layer of the Earth that everyone can see. It has a dark rich color and is made up of dead decaying plants and animals. This is the layer that is best for growing.

 

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Bubbles-N-Bread - Cinnamon Raisin Scones

3 cups all-purpose flour
2 1/2 tsp baking powder
1/2 tsp baking soda
1/3 cup granulated sugar
1/3 cup light brown sugar
1TBS ground cinnamon (or more to taste)
1/2 tsp ground nutmeg
1 1/2 sticks cold unsalted butter cut up into 12 pieces
1/2 cup raisins (or more to taste)
1 cup butter milk

Preheat Oven to 425 deg.

In a large mixing bowl, combine flour, baking powder, baking soda, both sugars, cinnamon and nutmeg. Stir dry ingredients to thoroughly mix, then work in the butter using a pastry blender, forks or two butter knives until mixture resembles the consistency of peas in cornmeal. Add raisins and stir, then add buttermilk and stir until just combined.

Turn the mixture out onto a lightly floured work surface and knead dough briefly until ingredients form a well combined dough, no more than 3 minutes. Cut dough in half and roll each half out into a round with approximately 7-inches diameter and 1/2 inch high. Cut each round into six scones and bake on an ungreased baking sheet at 425 deg for 12-15 minutes until scones are golden brown.

 

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Bubbles' n Bread - Traditional Irish Soda Bread

4 cups all-purpose flour
1 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon baking soda
2 cups buttermilk

Preheat oven to 400 degrees F. Mix dry ingredients. Add buttermilk and mix until well combined. Bake at 400 degrees for 50-55 minutes. When you remove the bread from the oven, place a clean, damp rag over the loaf until cooled, about 30 minutes. Break off a piece of the bread with your hands, and pass it on. Enjoy!

Optional:
If you like, you can try adding one of these flavors to your Soda Bread. The additional ingredient(s) should be combined with the dry ingredients before adding the buttermilk:
- 1/8 cup cinnamon and brown sugar (omit salt from dry ingredients)
- 1 cup apples sprinkled with nutmeg and cinnamon
- 3/4 cup canned pie filling - or get creative and make up your own flavor!
Be sure to let us know if you come up with a really good one, we'd love to try it.

Bubbles and More Bubbles: Bubbles-N-Bread

What happens when acids and bases combine? Try this at home:
1. Prepare a clean surface area with plenty of room to get messy.
2. In one container pour about 3 cups of white distilled vinegar
3. In another container measure about 1/4 cup of baking soda
4. Pour the baking soda into the vinegar and take a step back
What are your results?

 

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A Piece of Mind: Dr. Payne's Hideous Brain

There are two main parts of our central nervous system: the brain and the spinal cord. Each of the ingredients listed below represent a different part of the brain:

Red Jell-O: to give the brain its reddish color; lots of oxygen carried by blood needs to be delivered to the brain. The left side of your brain controls the right side of your body and vise versa. The left side of your brain or left lobe, called the analytical, is better at dealing with information. The right side of your brain recognizes objects in three dimensions, perceives depth and recognizes emotions on other people's faces.

Milk: represents the part of the brain composed of fats

Water: represents cerebrospinal fluid which is a watery, colorless, fluid that bathes and protects the brain and spinal cord.

Spaghetti: represents the corpus callosum, or the nerves that connect the left and right side of your brain.

Grape: represents pituitary gland which is responsible for producing chemicals that help humans grow and mature. It is located at the center of the brain.